domingo, 9 de diciembre de 2012

LA BATALLA FINAL




LA BATALLA FINAL

Celebramos hoy la Batalla de Ayacucho, llevada a cabo un 9 de Diciembre de 1824, con lo cual termina la resistencia realista y el proceso de la independencia americana.

¿Cómo fué que Bolívar llegó con su generales al Perú y sella la independencia el 9 de Diciembre 1824 si Don José de San Martin proclamó la independencia el 28 de Julio de 1821? 

Una de las estrategias de Jose de San Martin fue tratar de ganarse a los criollos para neutralizar a los españoles sin mayor esfuerzo militar, la que lamentablemente fracasó. 

Con un Virrey La Serna y su general Canterac y otros, el ejército realista estaba intacto, fortalecido y robustecido en la sierra. San Martin necesitaba de un refuerzo militar, apunta el historiador peruano Antonio Zapata. No tenía esa fuerza militar para resistir en Perú ni encontró apoyo en Buenos Aires, tampoco Chile se lo podía dar. dice el historiador Rodolfo Terragno. 

Fue entonces que entendió la necesidad de aliarse con Bolivar, quien en opinión de Zapata acababa de ganar popularidad con la victoria militar en Pichincha , Ecuador. La historiadora peruana Maribel Barrantes recuerda que San Martin viajó entonces de Lima a Guayaquil para entrevistarse con Bolívar. Necesitaba su apoyo para terminar con el último vestigio de resistencia.

El encuentro, dicen los historiadores, fue cordial el 26 y 27 de Julio de 1822. Los dos libertadores, uno del sur y el otro del norte. Pero no llegaron a ponerse de acuerdo en hacer juntos una campaña militar. 

Varios Historiadores dicen -Terragno entre ellos- coinciden en que San Martin ofrece a Bolivar ser su segundo, cosa que éste no acepta. 
No había lugar para los dos en América. Nace aquello "dos soles no pueden brillar en un mismo firmamento".

Y es que, según los biógrafos eran dos personalidades totalmente opuestos. La visión tradicional dice que Bolivar era soberbio, ambicioso, características sicológicas que contrastaban con San Martin, un tipo modesto, sacrificó fortuna, honores, familia y salud y cede su protagonismo ante Bolívar. 

Un golpe muy fuerte. San Martin comprendió entonces que es un obstáculo para la unión de los ejército -sur y norte-, se retiró a Valparaíso después de entregar el cargo de Protector del Perú al Primer Congreso Constituyente 20 Septiembre de 1822 que él mismo convocó, un año después de la independencia. El Congreso lo honró con el titulo de Fundador de la Independencia del Perú. De este modo finalizó la vida pública de El Libertador.

La conclusión absoluta del dominio español, tendria lugar tres años más tarde, el 9 de Diciembre (un día como hoy) de 1824.

Comentario aparte, siguiendo fuentes históricas, San Martin no guardó rencor a Bolivar. En prueba de ello cuentan que en su cuarto a la hora de su muerte, en Bolougne Sur Mer, Francia, colgaban de la pared los cuadros de Bolivar y de Napoleón. Según la académica sanmartiniana Emilia Menotti, San Martin no tuvo un sentimiento condenatorio con respecto a Bolívar. 

Algunos historiadores recuerdan que Bolivar, que había nombrado dictador por el propio gobierno peruano, tuvo ordenes del Congreso Grancolombiano para que no siguiera dirigiendo tropas en Perú como presidente de Colombia. Por eso, despues de la victoria de Junin, el 6 de Agosto de 1824, le entregó el mando de la tropa a uno de sus generales Jose Antonio José de Sucre, que llevó a cabo, precisamente, la Batalla de Ayacucho moviendose por la sierra donde se movían las fuerzas de La Serna. 

De este modo, frente a frente estuvieron por el flanco peruano José Antonio José de Sucre, a quien Bolivar le acababa de entregar el poder militar. Y por el flanco realista, el mismo Virrey José de la Serna, jefe de las tropas hispano-peruanas teniendo como general a Canterac. 

En realidad, no era subestimable la fuerza de La Serna estimada en unos 15.000 hombres además -como se ha apuntado aquí- de estar fuertemente posicionada en la sierra. La Serna sentía que tenía segura la victoria, según los historiadores, pero el resultado final fue otro. 

Un estratega militar -que habla en un estudio de la Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena financiado por bancos colombianos- recordó que Valdez, hombre de Canterac por la parte realista, empezó el ataque para desorganizar a los patriotas. La Mar, general bajo las ordenes de Sucre, intentó contener el avance de los realistas, pero Valdez lo hizo retroceder. Entonces, Sucre le envió dos batallones de refuerzo. Monet, realista, para apoyar a Valdez bajó en desorden hasta la quebrada que colinda conel cerro Condorcanqui, llanura de Ayacucho. Monet se precipitó, dice el estratega, cosa que fue aprovechada por Lara, hombre fiel aBolívar. quien logró dispersar la gente de Monet. Finalmente, aprovechando este momento, Sucre lanzó a Córdova que con la frase "Adelante, paso de Vencedores", atacó a Villalobos, pieza clave de la fuerza del Virrey.

El enfrentamiento, que duró aproximadamente 1 hora, fue encarnizado, según varios historiadores. Murió una cuarta parte de los ejércitos de ambos bandos. El Virrey La Serna, que estuvo a punto de ser muerto por un criollo pero fue identificado por otro,

Las fuerzas realistas tuvieron 1400 bajas y 600 heridos, en tanto que los ejercitos al mando de Sucre, 300 muertos y 600 heridos. En total, casi 3000 hombres inutilizados.

En las fuerzas que sellaron la independencia del Perú estuvieron Colombianos, ecuatorianos, chilenos, bolivianos, argentinos, venezolanos, ingleses. 

De manera que es importante conocer y recordar los pasajes de la historia para amar más al Perú, crecer como Nación y entender -sin las distorsiones de políticos populistas- la importancia de la voluntad de integración de las tres Américas. 

Obviamente, ya no para hacer campañas militares, sino para integrarnos dentro de una cultura de paz como economías emergentes promoviendo el desarrollo economico, la inclusión social y la integración de los países de cara al Pacífico, nuestro futuro.

27 comentarios:

Anónimo dijo...

[b][url=http://www.luxuryhandbagsalesshop.com/]www.luxuryhandbagsalesshop.com[/url][/b] The pop-up concept is the chain's most up-to-date try to maintain their competitive edge during the clash with the espresso wars in Japan, factors out the WSJ's Japan Authentic Time. Though Starbucks has about one,000 destinations throughout Japan, home-based chains like Caffe Veloce and Doutor Espresso also are preferred brand names. McDonald's McCafés also give stiff competitiveness for the high quality espresso chain, with their considerably reduced selling price factors..

[b][url=http://www.besthandbagstore.co.uk/]louis vuitton handbags[/url][/b] Which they find definitely considerable parts as a result of lots of unique concerns to look at the best way chrominance shifts on top of that to illumination. To not point out,Ralph Lauren Shop for making certain you will not lessen accomplishing it once you remove it, entirely neck tie them across the females handbag to secure a ladies-who-lunch overall look. You may uncover a more significant process, and has actually been wasting its time frame and/or electrical power.

[b][url=http://www.luxuryhandbagsalesshop.com/]www.luxuryhandbagsalesshop.com[/url][/b] bray web site They're going to skills rock temperaments with the organic leather tassels and metallic rivets. The fifth brandname is Louis Vuitton totes. I set up a assembly having a wholesaler to have a properly-regarded annually dialogue. I do not know very well what I would do with out Babycenter in my life. I know I am special, though the neighborhood has also revealed me that my triumphs and fears are a typical element of daily life as a dad or mum. I'm so amazed with the supportive staff members and warm friendships that I've shaped around the several years.

[b][url=http://www.uggclearancewebsite.com/]www.uggclearancewebsite.com[/url][/b] Hobo clutches might be the most effective totes which could be utilized in equally workplace in addition to for casual instances. Which is the straightforward motive why you must go in for hobo purses and purses. Designer clutches truly needs to be rather well-known as possible uncover most of these bags in normal leather-based, imprinted types, and other types.

[b][url=http://www.luxuryhandbagsalesshop.com/]www.luxuryhandbagsalesshop.com[/url][/b] Like a great wine, it also travels very well. Worms get benefit of file transfer functions as part of your operating system to simply shift from laptop or computer to laptop or computer. E-mail documents undoubtedly are a fantastic illustration of this ability. Individuals usually purchase Low-priced Crossbody Bag, because they really should shut up and go for your outfits DST. It truly is genuinely easy to choose an artist's purse range. In pretty much all selections of summer time time you'll be able to fulfill an variety of this kind of Marc Jacobs handbags for almost any structure and taste.

Anónimo dijo...

[b][url=http://www.bestonlinesalestore.com/]louis vuitton handbags[/url][/b] You are able to go into any store and discover bottles, onesies, sleepers, teething rings, booties, outfits, rattles, toys and i could go on and on. Shopping for for babies is not hard and there are numerous products from which to choose. Right here are my ideas for just a toddler present basket that should create a terrific little one present basket for your boy or lady.

[b][url=http://www.uggsaustraliawebsite.com/]www.uggsaustraliawebsite.com[/url][/b] Amid the various diverse purses Prada totes operate most proficiently. Soon after all it is not this type of a great approach to lie lessen around the swimming pool in the resort inside your trip. Yo . The Louis Vuitton brand carries on to develop significantly because the first maintain inside of Paris, france, revealed in 1855. At this time you can discover shops world wide, internet marketing significantly extra when compared to carriers together with baggage. Marc Jacobs grew to become a member from the corporation as Ingenious Movie director inside of 96, developing design traces for both of those ladies and adult men Louis Vuitton Belts.

[b][url=http://www.uggsaustraliawebsite.com/]www.uggsaustraliawebsite.com[/url][/b] You may decide on these up at any household retailer like House Depot. Lowes, or Ace Components. Make certain you receive the plastic brown or blue tarps not the fabric or distinct plastic painting tarps. Currently fascinated persons provide the approach to select Designer Replica Handbags that happen to be usually a definite duplicate from the the actual guy. Many years again working day to day superior and construction for these replica bags was bad ample that will help you make identify that it wasn't significantly branded product. Taking part in with new decades this concept has exploded into really preferred searching for people desire to receive replicas in the beloved branded bags and even has triggered the products and solutions these matters to enhance for that selling price is constantly about the fall like a consequence of improved competitiveness..

[b][url=http://www.cheapuggbootsonlineshop.co.uk/]cheap uggs[/url][/b] 1st Ever ahead of Flip Mobile cell phone might be viewed as among Louis Vuitton Equipment. It's a fantastic effective approach not simply just pertaining to Louis Vuitton style and design but in addition when it comes to Madonna. Primarily, Louis Vuitton Cellphone is made up of numerous mobile phones like mainly because Very small Louis Vuitton Treasured stone Lady Mobile cellphone, Louis Vuitton Incredibly first At any time Flipphone, Louis Vuitton telephone Damier jointly with QWERTY keyboard Television, Louis Vuitton Multicolor collectively with QWERTY keyboard Louis Vuitton Smaller Diamond Cellular phone Twin SIM Double Standby.

Anónimo dijo...

[url=http://www.TomBradyJersey.net/]Pink Tom Brady Jersey[/url]
[url=http://www.FrankGoreJerseys.us/]Nike Frank Gore Jersey[/url]
[url=http://www.nikeatlantafalconsstore.com/womens-tony-gonzalez-red-jersey-c-9_16.html]Tony Gonzalez Jersey[/url]

Anónimo dijo...

Mike Ditka Women's Jersey

(4)And you know who the interpreters for this entity that gave us a soul were, don't you? Marshack goes on to discuss the scientific and other contributions of Father Teilhard de Chardin, which rocked Catholicism Short-term projects usually match short-term funds, and so on I will repeat back to them what it is I think they're saying It doesn't seem to matter much how long a brand has been in business

Julius Peppers Jersey

So, if pets are to maintain a healthy body, they need large quantities of friendly bacteria I become sarcastic and abrupt We are all very busy people, some of us with 9-5 jobs and one hour commutes, and others of us busy making our lives at home work for us, with children at tow and a variety of chores to do as well as errands to run But virtually everyone else -- like the vast majority involving players along with the fans -- would suffer

Julio Jones Jersey

Anónimo dijo...

Once you have breakfast, you reload supplies of glucose which diminish
in between the final meal of your day after we awake the
subsequent morning. Belemnites and echinoderm: Image provided
by writer. It even gets worse as many people rather
than follow a healthy diet, they chose surgery with all the
risks to eliminate their body fat and so often do not change
their unhealthy diet. Indeed, many experts
on Paleolithic nutrition are divided into two separate camps concerning fat consumption-some wholly encourage it while
others vehemently oppose it.

My blog :: paleo diet recipes

Anónimo dijo...

Bear in mind these simple pointers when you're choosing your promise rings and you'll have a symbol of your
relationship to wear and enjoy. 1 solution to reveal to if a cameo is molded is
to glimpse to get a roundness in the detail and also a lack of sharp
and precise strains. And this is what is being done by
using Promise Rings.

My web blog :: promise ring 30 degrees everywhere

Anónimo dijo...

In a world where almost everything is run by machines it not
surprising that we are also running out of energy sources what worsens the case is that the energy sources that we use are destroying the world we are living in.
In some areas of the country, especially in the northeast, you can buy biodiesal.
" Here, the burning of fossil fuels takes on an even bigger role where it is not only changing the environment around us physically (such as polluted ice in Antarctica that could be coming from New York City, or the decline in certain species due to humans taking more land for themselves) but air pollution even has the ability to change the climate. There are different types of renewable energy, also known as sustainable energy and green energy.

Feel free to visit my page yawaris.com

Anónimo dijo...

This includes eating fresh fruits and vegetables which can be loaded with vitamins, minerals
and water. As an effect, it must be very well be included inside diet.
Water treatment plants do not use just as much chlorine as swimming pools.
) Wash that person and shower soon after exercise
of any type.

Feel free to visit my site :: acne 5 year old

Anónimo dijo...

scar treatment Nevada City

Also visit my web site ... scar removal Boone

Anónimo dijo...

laser treatment rosacea Des Allemands

Also visit my webpage ... laser treatment rosacea Nettleton

Anónimo dijo...

If you suspect that your acne could possibly be caused to get products you happen to
be using you'll need to conduct some experiments to find out if this describes true. Some generic brands of make up do not mention the harsh chemicals which can be present inside the product. Regardless in the cause, your acne issue may respond well to several of the possible treatments outlined with all the affordable survival Food. It also reduces inflammation and gives skin an even-looking texture.

My blog :: jahrends.com

Anónimo dijo...

Most engraving is also available in a variety of fonts allowing
the font selection to also be a part of the overall ring design.
At Mens Wedding Rings and mens promise rings Bands we offer plain wedding rings that are
sleek and sophisticated. If you don't want a diamond on the ring then you can use any kind of gem.

Here is my blog post :: webpage

Anónimo dijo...

Tungsten rings can be worn as a wedding band, couple rings,
promise ring or fashion ring. If you guessed that they broke up before they even
stepped foot onto their college campus, you are right.
And with the recent spotlight shed on promise rings at this year's VMA's, their popularity has only grown.


Here is my web page :: site

Anónimo dijo...

It will take years to gain a specialty in such a spot.
You must start shopping for your rings at least two to three months before the D day.
Purity rings make up a large component of Christian jewelry,
and are very popular amongst young social conservatives.


Review my web-site: homepage

Anónimo dijo...

Purchasing a promise ring is easy in case you know what
you are searching for. There are many that have a
heart or even two hearts intertwined with each other, representing the couple has
given their heart to their significant other. This
necessarily doesn't mean a parent has to give it even a self promise to abstain from these can be symbolized by wearing these rings.

Here is my weblog ... promise rings ben bridge

Anónimo dijo...

This program is really suitable for individuals
who are considering natural health. Apples: The apples are recommended for almost all the health problems.
Try starting a resistance routine using exercise bands
or really light weights. The first thing that you need to do to lose weight and burn fat is to plan ahead.



Here is my web site; Best Fat Burning Foods

Anónimo dijo...

For individuals who have a very minor excess to provide,
a diamond ring will go lower effectively having a small woman.
Here are few points that one should keep in mind before emptying their pockets on something so precious'. There are no rules to follow when giving a promise ring.

Feel free to surf to my website :: promise rings 100$ and under

Anónimo dijo...

We all realize that one of the most practical
use of a observe is to help you know the time.
You must start shopping for your rings at least two to three months before the D day.
It is why young children's watches which can be a a part of motion picture merchandise are so well-known nowadays.

Here is my web page :: promise Rings Daniels

Anónimo dijo...

It is finally ended for that disturbingly simple thing
I found that saved my life. Some are having said that organic, you
may drink them (but this just isn't the recommended use). Apple cider vinegar could be ingested or applied directly for the face to make your skin layer healthy and to clear up acne. Massaging helps restore circulation and blood flow as the oil softens your skin layer and cuts down on appearance of scar tissue.

Also visit my web blog; lighten acne scars

Anónimo dijo...

We all realize that one of the most practical use of a observe is to help you know the time.
What this type of ring symbolizes is that the couple agrees to not have romantic relationships with others, and later as their relationship grows and develops, the
plan is to move to an actual engagement ring. Coloured gemstone promise rings
are equally classic and appealing.

Feel free to visit my website; promise rings walmart

Anónimo dijo...

Promise rings are sometimes also referred to purity rings,
which can be given to a child by a parent or exchanged between couple to give your
word on abstaining from sexual activity until marriage.
A wedding is always a beautiful and solemn occasion where two people vow to love and cherish each other as long as they live.
Older cameos had been generally manufactured with celluloid utilizing two
hues.

Feel free to visit my blog post website

Anónimo dijo...

You can decide to display or let down seconds, set a security and
even select a security alarm sound from Windows. Most those who take it see their acne effectively cured,
experiencing long-term remission of acne symptoms.
Accutane has other potential unwanted effects;
people taking it ought to be closely monitored by way of a
physician, usually with monthly visits and blood tests.
) This is really a general tip as oppose to prevention or treatment advice.


Feel free to surf to my web site new Acne treatment

Anónimo dijo...

Promise Rings are customarily given to each other when two
individuals are in a serious committed relationship
but don't feel ready or mature enough to become engaged. This may perhaps go with no stating, but usually do not confuse commercially manufactured jewelry with handcrafted silver jewellery. The style of the men promise ring is also a very sensitive issue.

my web site - promise rings ideas - http://www.fr.curriculumforge.org/ -

Anónimo dijo...

You can opt to display or switch off seconds, set an alarm and even select a security alarm sound from Windows.
A daily practice of yoga is usually recommended as a approach to increase the flow of blood towards the face.

The appropriate approach is prevention and in addition treating
of one's acne in extremely early stages to reduce the risk of long lasting scarred tissues. After birth, parents must also seek immediate treatment upon discovery of an ear deformity in a or both ears with the child.

Review my web-site; hormone imbalance acne [http://www.clickadssocial.com/blogs/8088/14310/an-analysis-of-straightforward-s]

Anónimo dijo...

I wants to share the useful information I have found on free natural prevention and treatment of acne.
This disorder is a result of mutations from the FGFR2 gene.
Use a cotton ball wet with witch hazel to trap any in the last pieces of clay still in your skin.
A diet made up of fruits, whole grain products, lean protein, and whole
grain products will help your body eliminate acne.

Also visit my web-site; acne help ()

Anónimo dijo...

On the other hand, in case you carry time for you to observe them, you are going to see a huge
advancement inside high quality of one's photographs. Dark Blue - lovable, very happy, romantic, passionate. Promise rings are an excellent tool for young couples who are intent on being exclusive and monogamous with one another.

Visit my site; promise rings custom engraved (treasurearticles4u.com)

Anónimo dijo...

It allows both parities involved, who are not ready to make
a real commitment, to make a lesser commitment. From this time onwards, the claddagh ring began to build its international profile.
CZ rings get a bad rap because they are often sold at cheap-o
shops like Claire's and Spencer's, but if you purchase a
CZ promise ring that is set on an 18k gold band, the ring will look
very high quality and expensive.

my web-site ... webpage